I had a district court trial—it was complicated liability dispute before Judge John Green in Baltimore City District Court. In this auto accident collision we sued the other driver, and the other driver sued us. This was a classic red light/green light case, which boils down to he-said/she-said when there are no independent witnesses.
An independent witness is a person who is unaffiliated with either party who sees the auto accident. Independent is important—friends and relatives are more likely to lie to help their friends and relatives, so they have a bias, an incentive, to lie (even while under oath).
In our case, there were no independent witnesses. However, there was a police officer who talked to the parties immediately after the collision. In a trial, that police officer could testify about what the parties said, even if one of them hypothetically told the police officer that he “didn’t know what color his light was.”